Diabetes mellitus, known commonly as diabetes, is a metabolic disease where a person has high blood glucose (sugar) because they do not produce enough insulin or the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin. Glucose cannot enter our cells without insulin, which is produced by the pancreas, being present. These people will have frequent urination and unquenchable thirst and hunger. Other symptoms include excessive weight gain/loss, fatigue, wounds that don’t heal, erectile disfunction, and numbness/tingling in hands and feet.
Diabetes is a long-term condition affecting over 382 million people throughout the world. Nearly 30 million children (1 in every 400) and adults in the US have diabetes. Another 86 million Americans have prediabetes, where blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not quite high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Even with prediabetes, there may be some damage to the circulatory system and heart.
Type 1 Diabetes is where the body does not produce insulin. This form is not nearly as common as type 2, being only 10% of cases of diabetes. Type 1 patients need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life, have regular blood tests, exercise, and follow a special diet.
Type 2 Diabetes is where the body does not produce enough insulin. 90% of all diabetes cases are this type. Symptoms can be controlled by losing weight, following healthy diet, exercising, and monitoring blood glucose. The disease progresses and patient may end up having to take insulin in pill form.
Being overweight, a sedentary lifestyle, and eating the wrong foods all can contribute to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Drinking one can of non-diet soda per day can increase the risk by 22%. The risk of developing diabetes increases with age. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to complications with vision, skin, heart, hypertension, mental health, hearing, gum disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, stroke, and infections.
The risk of heart disease is higher with diabetes, so blood pressure and cholesterol levels should be tested regularly. Diabetics should also stop smoking.
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CMP-14: The Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP-14) is a frequently ordered group of 14 laboratory tests that gives important information about the current status of your kidneys, liver, and electrolyte and acid/base balance as well as of your blood sugar and blood proteins. Abnormal results, and especially combinations of abnormal results, can indicate a problem that needs to be addressed.
HgA1C: This non-fasting test, also known as A1c, HbA1c, Glycohemoglobin, or Glycated hemoglobin, indicates how well you have controlled your diabetes over the last few months. Even though you may have some very high or very low blood glucose values, Hemoglobin A1C will give you a picture of the average amount of glucose in your blood over that time period. While the Hemoglobin A1C is the standard tool to determine blood sugar control for patients with diabetes, it is not a substitute for daily, routine blood glucose testing.
American Diabetes Association. “American Diabetes Month.” In My Community. American Diabetes Association, November 2014. Web. 9 Nov 2014.
Medical News Today. “What is Diabetes?” Knowledge Center Home. Medical News Today, 2013. Web. 9 Nov 2014.